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無線電氣火災監控系統在文物建筑中的應用


文物建筑多是木結構或磚木結構,火災荷載大,極易發生火災。近年來,隨著文物建筑內電氣設備的增多,電氣火災已成為文物建筑火災的主要形式,約占其火災總數的 40% ,并且呈上升趨勢。電氣火災隱患存留時間長,不易被發現,一旦引發火災,會給歷史文化遺產造成不可挽回的損失。


北京市通州區某寺廟,始建于北齊 ( 公元 550—577 年) ,歷經 12 個朝代,是一座千年古佛道場。寺廟占地面積約 4 200 m2,建筑面積約 380 m2,最大殿高7. 5 m,全部為單層磚木結構,寺廟內現有大殿、天王殿等 5 間主殿,另有寮房 8 間。本文依據相關法律法規和標準規范,通過現場勘查和分析,對該建筑內、外院的配電設施、線路、用電設備進行了評估,提出了應用無線電氣火災監控系統的建議。


1 電氣火災風險評估


1. 1 電氣火災風險分析


文物建筑電氣火災風險評估,應勘查所涉及評估內容的電氣火災隱患特征,評估確定每一項內容所對應的電氣火災風險級別,最終綜合確定文物建筑電氣火災風險等級。評估內容包括配電設備、配電線路和用電設備 3 個大項,見表 1。根據對該寺廟進行現場勘查,依據《文物建筑防火設計導則( 試行) 》( 以下簡稱《導則》) 中所列的項目進行了分類評估,再根據分類評估的結果,參考《導則》第 3. 5. 2 條、第 3. 5. 3 條規定,最終得出評估結果為整體高危險級。


1. 2 電氣火災隱患分析


產生電氣火災隱患的原因多樣,自然因素和人為因素均有,但主要是人為因素。人為因素包括: 電氣工程設計不合理、裝修工程引發火災隱患、施工不規范、 使用不合格的電器產品等,對于人為因素我們可以通過加強日常監管和提高施工質量來減少電氣火災隱患。在對該文物建筑進行電氣火災評估后,發現存在下述 3 項火災隱患。


( 1) 配電設備。該文物建筑內部導線存在明顯老化、腐蝕和損傷現象,配電柜下方進線處電纜外皮有多處破損痕跡,如圖 1、圖 2 所示。

無線智慧電氣火災監控系統在文物建筑中的應用2.jpg

( 2) 配電線路。室外電線、電纜表面有明顯的老化、腐蝕和損壞現象,如圖 3 所示。

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( 3) 用電設備。①大殿內部分燈頭、燈座、熒光燈的鎮流器直接安裝在木質等可燃材料上,如圖 4 所示;②燈具燈泡的正下方 0. 3 m 范圍內有可燃物堆放( 包括窗簾等可燃飾物) ; ③用電設備處于長期通電運行狀態,且未設置動作參數與設備匹配的短路、過載、漏電保護等裝置,且寺廟內未設置電氣火災監控系統。


1. 3 電氣火災隱患整改措施


針對通過評估得到的電氣火災隱患,提出如下 3項整改意見:


( 1) 電纜表面有明顯的老化、腐蝕和損壞的要及時更換。


( 2) 燈座要調整安裝在不燃材料上,或增加有效的防火隔熱措施,外露導線要穿管保護,燈具周圍有可燃物的,要把可燃物移除,或把燈具移至符合防火要求的距離之外。


( 3) 建議安裝電氣火災監控系統。


2 電氣火災監控系統的設置


電氣火災監控系統是指當配電線路中的漏電電流、溫度等被探測到參數超過報警設定值時,能發出報警信號、控制信號并能指示報警部位的系統,屬于先期預報警系統。考慮到該寺廟屬于文物建筑,電氣火災監控系統如果采用有線方式傳輸信號,對于保護文物本體有一定影響,如果安裝不規范,就會造成為了安全而破壞文物的現象。相比于有線傳輸,無線系統省去了復雜的布線問題,具有施工工期短、配線故障率低、傳輸成本低廉、探測器易于安裝、組網方便等優點。基于以上考慮,宜選擇安裝無線傳輸方式的電氣火災監控系統。

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2. 1 無線通信方式的選擇


目前,基于短距離無線通信的技術比較多,包括紅外線、藍牙、Wi-Fi、ZigBee 等。然而這些通信技術一旦應用于建筑物內進行布局聯網時,由于受到墻體材質和建筑結構影響,其信號衰減程度不一,大多需要通過增加無線中繼器來延長通信距離,但是增加無線中繼器使得整個無線網絡變得復雜,降低了無線網絡的穩定性,也增加了系統的故障率。相比于上述幾種短距離無線通信技術,低功耗廣域網( LoRa) 通信技術具有功耗低、連接數量大、時延低、網絡覆蓋廣等特點,可以解決目前無線產品在距離、功耗方面的瓶頸。綜合比較幾種無線通信方式的特點,考慮到組網簡單及通信穩定等優勢,選擇安裝基于 LoRa 通信技術的無線電氣火災監控系統。


2. 2 系統組成


在該建筑中安裝的無線火災電氣監控系統由無線電氣火災監控主機、無線數傳電臺及組合式電氣火災監控探測器組成,下面對各部分功能及技術指標進行詳細介紹。


( 1) 無線電氣火災監控主機。監控主機是無線電 氣火災監控系統的中樞設備,可以接收到終端探測器發出的漏 電 電 流、溫 度 等 報 警 信 號,點 亮 報 警 指 示燈,發出報警音響,并顯示報警類型及位置信息。無線電氣火災監控主機還可以實時監測無線網絡中通信模塊及各終端設備節點的工作狀態,儲存和打印報警信息。該監控主機可采用 4 輸出通信回路,每 個輸出通信回路標準配接 63 臺探測器,即 1 臺監控設備可 以 連 接 252 臺 探 測 器,并 提 供 回 路 通 訊 卡、CRT 串口通信等多種通訊接口。監控主機內部連接無線數傳電臺后即組成無線電氣火災監控主機,其主要技術參數見表 3。


( 2) 無線數傳電臺。無線數傳電臺具有無線數據收發功能,是監控主機與末端探測器的通訊傳輸橋梁,也可作為網絡節點便于組網進而增大通訊距離。該電臺采用 LoRa 直序擴頻技術,具有功率密度集中、抗干擾能力強和通訊距離遠的優勢,且采用標準 RS232 /RS485 接口, 半雙工, 收 發 一 體, 可 使 用8 ~ 28 V 直流電源供電,便于現場的安裝與調試。無線數傳電臺與監控主機連接后可作為主機內置無線通訊模塊使用。


( 3) 組合式電氣火災監控探測器。采用漏電溫度組合式探測器,前 4 通道監測漏電,后 4 通道監測溫 度。該探測器用于在線檢測 AC220 V /380 V 配電線路的漏電電流以及配電線路和配電箱體的溫度,能同時監測多個部位的絕緣狀態或溫度,當任一處的漏電電流值大于漏電報警設定值或溫度高于溫度報警設定值時,儀器立即發出聲光報警信號,并顯示相應的漏電電流或溫度值,指示問題方位。該探測器與無線數傳電臺相連接,組成無線電氣火災監控探測器,能夠將漏電電流或溫度值傳輸給監控主機。其主要技術參數見表 4.2. 3 系統安裝


經現場勘查調研,對寺廟院內 3 個動力配電箱各安裝 1 套組合式電氣火災監控探測器,綜合考慮院內值守情況,將電氣火災監控主機安裝于寮房內,無線數傳電臺與監控主機及探測器配套安裝,形成無線電氣火災監控系統。安裝材料清單見表 5,系統安裝平面圖如圖 5 所示。


目前,電氣火災監控系統在文物建筑中的應用越來越普及,發揮的作用也越來越大。基于無線通信技術的電氣火災監控系統因其具有安裝簡單、組網方便、成本低廉等優勢,近年來市場占有率持續提高。就文物建筑而言,因火災危險性較大且保護價值很高,若安裝基于無線通信技術的電氣火災監控系統,則對其系統運行穩定性和運行監控指標的要求也應相對嚴格。筆者認為在文物建筑內安裝的基于無線通信技術的電氣 火 災 監 控 系 統, 其 無 線 通 信 組 件 性 能 應 滿 足GA 1151—2014《火災報警系統無線通信功能通用要求》的技術要求,電氣火災監控系統組件性能應滿足GB 14287—2014《電氣火災監控系統》的技術要求。

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